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Thursday, September 07, 2017

Japanese Encephalitis - What You Need To Know

The Department of Health (DOH) urged the public to intensify their efforts against getting mosquito bites, following 9 deaths caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE) this year - 7 from Central Luzon, one from Ilocos, and one from Calabarzon.  There are currently 133 patients suspected of having the virus, and almost 60 of them already confirmed. The disease could be prevented by vaccine, but once infected, there is no cure for the virus itself except the patient's own immune system. Only the symptoms of the disease may be treated. In the Philippines, the vaccine is currently only available commercially. Government centers will have the vaccine next year.  Here's what you need to know about this potentially deadly disease and how to protect yourself from it.  What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. Not all people infected with JEV will get sick or show symptoms. In people who show symptoms, the case-fatality rate can be as high as 30%. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JEV. The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE) was documented in 1871 in Japan. 24 countries in South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have JEV transmission risk, which includes more than 3 billion people.  What are the symptoms of JE? Most JEV infections are mild (fever and headache) or without apparent symptoms. Approximately 1 in 250 infections results in severe illness requiring hospitalization. It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop these symptoms. Severe disease is characterized by rapid onset of high fever, headache, neck stiffness, and disorientation. Later symptoms include swelling around the brain (encephalitis), coma, seizures, spastic paralysis and ultimately death.  What are the effects of the disease? Among those who survive a severe case of JE, 20%–30% suffer permanent intellectual, behavioral or neurological problems such as paralysis, recurrent seizures or the inability to speak.  How is the virus transmitted? JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans cannot transfer the virus to others, even through mosquito bites. The virus is commonly transmitted between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds.  The disease is mostly found in rural and sub-urban settings, where humans live near to animals. In the tropical and subtropical regions, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifies during the rainy season and pre-harvest period in rice-cultivating regions.  What to do if you get bitten by a mosquito, feel sick or may have JE? Avoid scratching mosquito bites. Apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce itching. Go the the clinic and inform the doctor of your circumstance - travel location, insect bites. Use Paracetamol (acetaminophen). Do not take pain relievers that contain aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil), it may lead to a greater tendency to bleed.  How is the disease diagnosed? Individuals who live in or have traveled to an area where there are cases of JE are reported, and experience some symptoms are considered a suspected JE case. Verification of the infection requires a blood (serum) test. But cerebrospinal fluid is preferred.  How is the disease treated? There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE. Treatment is provided only to relieve the symptoms of the disease and help stabilize the patient to overcome the virus. Just like dengue, overcoming the JE virus gives the patient a certain level of immunity for the JEV.  How to prevent getting infected with JEV? Safe and effective JE vaccines are available to prevent disease. There are 4 main types of JE vaccines currently in use: inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines live attenuated vaccines live recombinant vaccines Personal preventive measures include the use of repellents, long-sleeved clothes, coils and vaporizers.    sources: World Health Org., ABS-CBN, Center for Disease Control
The Department of Health (DOH) urged the public to intensify their efforts against getting mosquito bites, following 9 deaths caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE) this year - 7 from Central Luzon, one from Ilocos, and one from Calabarzon.
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There are currently 133 patients suspected of having the virus, and almost 60 of them already confirmed. The disease could be prevented by vaccine, but once infected, there is no cure for the virus itself except the patient's own immune system. Only the symptoms of the disease may be treated. In the Philippines, the vaccine is currently only available commercially. Government centers will have the vaccine next year.

Here's what you need to know about this potentially deadly disease and how to protect yourself from it.
The Department of Health (DOH) urged the public to intensify their efforts against getting mosquito bites, following 9 deaths caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE) this year - 7 from Central Luzon, one from Ilocos, and one from Calabarzon.  There are currently 133 patients suspected of having the virus, and almost 60 of them already confirmed. The disease could be prevented by vaccine, but once infected, there is no cure for the virus itself except the patient's own immune system. Only the symptoms of the disease may be treated. In the Philippines, the vaccine is currently only available commercially. Government centers will have the vaccine next year.  Here's what you need to know about this potentially deadly disease and how to protect yourself from it.  What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. Not all people infected with JEV will get sick or show symptoms. In people who show symptoms, the case-fatality rate can be as high as 30%. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JEV. The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE) was documented in 1871 in Japan. 24 countries in South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have JEV transmission risk, which includes more than 3 billion people.  What are the symptoms of JE? Most JEV infections are mild (fever and headache) or without apparent symptoms. Approximately 1 in 250 infections results in severe illness requiring hospitalization. It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop these symptoms. Severe disease is characterized by rapid onset of high fever, headache, neck stiffness, and disorientation. Later symptoms include swelling around the brain (encephalitis), coma, seizures, spastic paralysis and ultimately death.  What are the effects of the disease? Among those who survive a severe case of JE, 20%–30% suffer permanent intellectual, behavioral or neurological problems such as paralysis, recurrent seizures or the inability to speak.  How is the virus transmitted? JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans cannot transfer the virus to others, even through mosquito bites. The virus is commonly transmitted between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds.  The disease is mostly found in rural and sub-urban settings, where humans live near to animals. In the tropical and subtropical regions, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifies during the rainy season and pre-harvest period in rice-cultivating regions.  What to do if you get bitten by a mosquito, feel sick or may have JE? Avoid scratching mosquito bites. Apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce itching. Go the the clinic and inform the doctor of your circumstance - travel location, insect bites. Use Paracetamol (acetaminophen). Do not take pain relievers that contain aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil), it may lead to a greater tendency to bleed.  How is the disease diagnosed? Individuals who live in or have traveled to an area where there are cases of JE are reported, and experience some symptoms are considered a suspected JE case. Verification of the infection requires a blood (serum) test. But cerebrospinal fluid is preferred.  How is the disease treated? There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE. Treatment is provided only to relieve the symptoms of the disease and help stabilize the patient to overcome the virus. Just like dengue, overcoming the JE virus gives the patient a certain level of immunity for the JEV.  How to prevent getting infected with JEV? Safe and effective JE vaccines are available to prevent disease. There are 4 main types of JE vaccines currently in use: inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines live attenuated vaccines live recombinant vaccines Personal preventive measures include the use of repellents, long-sleeved clothes, coils and vaporizers.    sources: World Health Org., ABS-CBN, Center for Disease Control
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What is Japanese encephalitis?
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes.
  • Not all people infected with JEV will get sick or show symptoms. In people who show symptoms, the case-fatality rate can be as high as 30%.
  • There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection.
  • Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JEV.
  • The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE) was documented in 1871 in Japan.
  • 24 countries in South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have JEV transmission risk, which includes more than 3 billion people.

The Department of Health (DOH) urged the public to intensify their efforts against getting mosquito bites, following 9 deaths caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE) this year - 7 from Central Luzon, one from Ilocos, and one from Calabarzon.  There are currently 133 patients suspected of having the virus, and almost 60 of them already confirmed. The disease could be prevented by vaccine, but once infected, there is no cure for the virus itself except the patient's own immune system. Only the symptoms of the disease may be treated. In the Philippines, the vaccine is currently only available commercially. Government centers will have the vaccine next year.  Here's what you need to know about this potentially deadly disease and how to protect yourself from it.  What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. Not all people infected with JEV will get sick or show symptoms. In people who show symptoms, the case-fatality rate can be as high as 30%. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JEV. The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE) was documented in 1871 in Japan. 24 countries in South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have JEV transmission risk, which includes more than 3 billion people.  What are the symptoms of JE? Most JEV infections are mild (fever and headache) or without apparent symptoms. Approximately 1 in 250 infections results in severe illness requiring hospitalization. It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop these symptoms. Severe disease is characterized by rapid onset of high fever, headache, neck stiffness, and disorientation. Later symptoms include swelling around the brain (encephalitis), coma, seizures, spastic paralysis and ultimately death.  What are the effects of the disease? Among those who survive a severe case of JE, 20%–30% suffer permanent intellectual, behavioral or neurological problems such as paralysis, recurrent seizures or the inability to speak.  How is the virus transmitted? JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans cannot transfer the virus to others, even through mosquito bites. The virus is commonly transmitted between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds.  The disease is mostly found in rural and sub-urban settings, where humans live near to animals. In the tropical and subtropical regions, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifies during the rainy season and pre-harvest period in rice-cultivating regions.  What to do if you get bitten by a mosquito, feel sick or may have JE? Avoid scratching mosquito bites. Apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce itching. Go the the clinic and inform the doctor of your circumstance - travel location, insect bites. Use Paracetamol (acetaminophen). Do not take pain relievers that contain aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil), it may lead to a greater tendency to bleed.  How is the disease diagnosed? Individuals who live in or have traveled to an area where there are cases of JE are reported, and experience some symptoms are considered a suspected JE case. Verification of the infection requires a blood (serum) test. But cerebrospinal fluid is preferred.  How is the disease treated? There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE. Treatment is provided only to relieve the symptoms of the disease and help stabilize the patient to overcome the virus. Just like dengue, overcoming the JE virus gives the patient a certain level of immunity for the JEV.  How to prevent getting infected with JEV? Safe and effective JE vaccines are available to prevent disease. There are 4 main types of JE vaccines currently in use: inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines live attenuated vaccines live recombinant vaccines Personal preventive measures include the use of repellents, long-sleeved clothes, coils and vaporizers.    sources: World Health Org., ABS-CBN, Center for Disease Control
Map showing the countries with endemic Japanese encephalitis.


What are the symptoms of JE?
  • Most JEV infections are mild (fever and headache) or without apparent symptoms.
  • Approximately 1 in 250 infections results in severe illness requiring hospitalization.
  • It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop these symptoms.
  • Severe disease is characterized by rapid onset of high fever, headache, neck stiffness, and disorientation.
  • Later symptoms include swelling around the brain (encephalitis), coma, seizures, spastic paralysis and ultimately death.


What are the effects of the disease?
  • Among those who survive a severe case of JE, 20%–30% suffer permanent intellectual, behavioral or neurological problems such as paralysis, recurrent seizures or the inability to speak.

How is the virus transmitted?
  • JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus).
  • Humans cannot transfer the virus to others, even through mosquito bites.
  • The virus is commonly transmitted between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds.
  •  The disease is mostly found in rural and sub-urban settings, where humans live near to animals.
  • In the tropical and subtropical regions, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifies during the rainy season and pre-harvest period in rice-cultivating regions.
The Department of Health (DOH) urged the public to intensify their efforts against getting mosquito bites, following 9 deaths caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE) this year - 7 from Central Luzon, one from Ilocos, and one from Calabarzon.  There are currently 133 patients suspected of having the virus, and almost 60 of them already confirmed. The disease could be prevented by vaccine, but once infected, there is no cure for the virus itself except the patient's own immune system. Only the symptoms of the disease may be treated. In the Philippines, the vaccine is currently only available commercially. Government centers will have the vaccine next year.  Here's what you need to know about this potentially deadly disease and how to protect yourself from it.  What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. Not all people infected with JEV will get sick or show symptoms. In people who show symptoms, the case-fatality rate can be as high as 30%. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JEV. The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE) was documented in 1871 in Japan. 24 countries in South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have JEV transmission risk, which includes more than 3 billion people.  What are the symptoms of JE? Most JEV infections are mild (fever and headache) or without apparent symptoms. Approximately 1 in 250 infections results in severe illness requiring hospitalization. It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop these symptoms. Severe disease is characterized by rapid onset of high fever, headache, neck stiffness, and disorientation. Later symptoms include swelling around the brain (encephalitis), coma, seizures, spastic paralysis and ultimately death.  What are the effects of the disease? Among those who survive a severe case of JE, 20%–30% suffer permanent intellectual, behavioral or neurological problems such as paralysis, recurrent seizures or the inability to speak.  How is the virus transmitted? JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans cannot transfer the virus to others, even through mosquito bites. The virus is commonly transmitted between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds.  The disease is mostly found in rural and sub-urban settings, where humans live near to animals. In the tropical and subtropical regions, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifies during the rainy season and pre-harvest period in rice-cultivating regions.  What to do if you get bitten by a mosquito, feel sick or may have JE? Avoid scratching mosquito bites. Apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce itching. Go the the clinic and inform the doctor of your circumstance - travel location, insect bites. Use Paracetamol (acetaminophen). Do not take pain relievers that contain aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil), it may lead to a greater tendency to bleed.  How is the disease diagnosed? Individuals who live in or have traveled to an area where there are cases of JE are reported, and experience some symptoms are considered a suspected JE case. Verification of the infection requires a blood (serum) test. But cerebrospinal fluid is preferred.  How is the disease treated? There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE. Treatment is provided only to relieve the symptoms of the disease and help stabilize the patient to overcome the virus. Just like dengue, overcoming the JE virus gives the patient a certain level of immunity for the JEV.  How to prevent getting infected with JEV? Safe and effective JE vaccines are available to prevent disease. There are 4 main types of JE vaccines currently in use: inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines live attenuated vaccines live recombinant vaccines Personal preventive measures include the use of repellents, long-sleeved clothes, coils and vaporizers.    sources: World Health Org., ABS-CBN, Center for Disease Control

What to do if you get bitten by a mosquito, feel sick or may have JE?
  • Avoid scratching mosquito bites. Apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce itching.
  • Go the the clinic and inform the doctor of your circumstance - travel location, insect bites.
  • Use Paracetamol (acetaminophen). Do not take pain relievers that contain aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil), it may lead to a greater tendency to bleed.

How is the disease diagnosed?
  • Individuals who live in or have traveled to an area where there are cases of JE are reported, and experience some symptoms are considered a suspected JE case.
  • Verification of the infection requires a blood (serum) test. But cerebrospinal fluid is preferred.


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How is the disease treated?
  • There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE.
  • Treatment is provided only to relieve the symptoms of the disease and help stabilize the patient to overcome the virus.
  • Just like dengue, overcoming the JE virus gives the patient a certain level of immunity for the JEV.
The Department of Health (DOH) urged the public to intensify their efforts against getting mosquito bites, following 9 deaths caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE) this year - 7 from Central Luzon, one from Ilocos, and one from Calabarzon.  There are currently 133 patients suspected of having the virus, and almost 60 of them already confirmed. The disease could be prevented by vaccine, but once infected, there is no cure for the virus itself except the patient's own immune system. Only the symptoms of the disease may be treated. In the Philippines, the vaccine is currently only available commercially. Government centers will have the vaccine next year.  Here's what you need to know about this potentially deadly disease and how to protect yourself from it.  What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. Not all people infected with JEV will get sick or show symptoms. In people who show symptoms, the case-fatality rate can be as high as 30%. There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JEV. The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE) was documented in 1871 in Japan. 24 countries in South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have JEV transmission risk, which includes more than 3 billion people.  What are the symptoms of JE? Most JEV infections are mild (fever and headache) or without apparent symptoms. Approximately 1 in 250 infections results in severe illness requiring hospitalization. It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop these symptoms. Severe disease is characterized by rapid onset of high fever, headache, neck stiffness, and disorientation. Later symptoms include swelling around the brain (encephalitis), coma, seizures, spastic paralysis and ultimately death.  What are the effects of the disease? Among those who survive a severe case of JE, 20%–30% suffer permanent intellectual, behavioral or neurological problems such as paralysis, recurrent seizures or the inability to speak.  How is the virus transmitted? JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans cannot transfer the virus to others, even through mosquito bites. The virus is commonly transmitted between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds.  The disease is mostly found in rural and sub-urban settings, where humans live near to animals. In the tropical and subtropical regions, transmission can occur year-round but often intensifies during the rainy season and pre-harvest period in rice-cultivating regions.  What to do if you get bitten by a mosquito, feel sick or may have JE? Avoid scratching mosquito bites. Apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce itching. Go the the clinic and inform the doctor of your circumstance - travel location, insect bites. Use Paracetamol (acetaminophen). Do not take pain relievers that contain aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil), it may lead to a greater tendency to bleed.  How is the disease diagnosed? Individuals who live in or have traveled to an area where there are cases of JE are reported, and experience some symptoms are considered a suspected JE case. Verification of the infection requires a blood (serum) test. But cerebrospinal fluid is preferred.  How is the disease treated? There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE. Treatment is provided only to relieve the symptoms of the disease and help stabilize the patient to overcome the virus. Just like dengue, overcoming the JE virus gives the patient a certain level of immunity for the JEV.  How to prevent getting infected with JEV? Safe and effective JE vaccines are available to prevent disease. There are 4 main types of JE vaccines currently in use: inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines live attenuated vaccines live recombinant vaccines Personal preventive measures include the use of repellents, long-sleeved clothes, coils and vaporizers.    sources: World Health Org., ABS-CBN, Center for Disease Control
JEV vaccine from Japan

How to prevent getting infected with JEV?
  • Safe and effective JE vaccines are available to prevent disease.
  • There are 4 main types of JE vaccines currently in use:
    • inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines
    • inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines
    • live attenuated vaccines
    • live recombinant vaccines
  • Personal preventive measures include the use of repellents, long-sleeved clothes, sleeping in air conditioned rooms or using mosquito nets, coils and vaporizers.


sources: World Health Org, ABS-CBN, Center for Disease Control

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